Suldaan Nuur Ammaan iyo Ingiriis: Dhacdadii Afduubidii Ingiriiska ee Xaaska Suldaanka

Geesinimadii iyo Awoodii SANDALADII Siciid Garxajis (Habaryoonis)


Dhacdadan waxa buugiisa kusii guurinaya ninkii waaliga ahaa ee 1890s Ingiriiska u fadhiyay magaalada Berbera waqtigaas buugiisa ”Under the Flag and Somali Coast Stories”. Waa ninka la dhaho Langton Prendergast Walsh. Xogtan hoose oo dhanna waxad ka helaysaa buugiisa.

Waxa jirtay waqti ku beegan 1889-1890 oo ah waqtiyadii maamulka Ingiriiska ee magaalada Berbera bilowga ahaa in col baaxad wayn oo ay kala hogaaminayaan Suldaan Nuur Amaan, suldaankii Habaryoonis (Garxajis)iyo Ugaas Dhulbahante ah ase aan magaciisa la sheegin ay weerar ku ekaysiiyeen magaalda Berbera iyo ceelasha geelu ka cabo ee Dubaar iyo Biyoguure. Waxa colkaas huwanta ahi dhacay wixii xoolo magaalada Berbera agteeda joogay oo lagu qiyaasay 1500 oo geela iyo xoolo badan oo ay lahaayeen dad safaro ah oo magaalada Berbera ku sugnaa.

Tarjumaad

”They were tribesmen led by two important chiefs. One chief was Dulbahanta with a large mounted force and the other an infantry soldier magnet called Sultan Nur who commanded in person a possibly a few hundernd horsemen of his own tribe and fifteen hunderd footmen . The scout was certain that Sultan Nur was in command, since the sultan’s horse, a whitish-grey, was well known” (p. 249)

”Waxay ahaayeen ciidan qabiil oo ay hogaaminayaan laba madax dhaqameed oo muhiima. Madax dhaqameedada midkood wuxu ahaa Dhulbahante wata ciidan baaxad wayn oo fardooley ah halka ka kalena ahaa Suldaan Nuur Ammaan, oo ah birlab soo jiidata ciidamada, kaas oo hogaaminayay ciidan dhawr boqol ah oo fardooley ah oo qabiilkiisa ah iyo ilaa kun iyo shan boqol oo ciidan lugta ah. Ilaaladu markiiba waxay garteen in ciidanka Suldan Nur watay waayo faraska suldaaanka oo ahaa beycad (whithish-grey) wuxu ahaa mid caan ah oo la yaqaan”

Weerarka labada col ee labada ugaas magaalada Berbera ku ekaysiiyeen wuxu welwel badan ku abuuray maamulkii Ingiriiska ee magaalada Berbera, kaas oo waqtigaas bilow ahaa. Xoolaha la dhacay badankooda waxa lahaa dadka magaalada oo u badan beesha Ciise Muuse iyo dad safaro ah oo magaalada waqtigaas joogay. Ingiriiskii wuxu ergo u diray Suldaan Nuur Ammaan wuxuna ku yiri soo celi xoolaha aad dhacday, suldaanku wuu dafiray inuu colkaa watay wuxuna ku sheegay tuugo aan isaga ka amar qaadan, xoolihiina waxa kaxaystay buu yiri Ugaaskii Dhulbahante.

“Sultan Nur, however, not only declined to make restitution, but also refused to aid us in getting back the captured animals. All the animals, he said, had been taken by the Dulbanta chief ; while, if any of his men had taken part in the raid, they were renegade Murrassehs over whom he had no control, and were regarded as no longer members of his branch of the Habr Gerhajis tribe” (p. 252)

Inkastoo suldaanku dafiray, haddana ergadii Ingiirisku waxay sheegeen inay xeryaha suldaanka ku arkeen geel leh sumada xoolihii la dhacay. Ingiriisku markaas wuxu istusay inuu Suldaan Nuur Amaan iyo reerkiisa talaabo ka qaado. Si suldaanka culays loo saaro, dhamaan wixii reerka suldaanka ka joogay magaalada Berbera waa la xidhixidhay, magaalada Cadan wixii ka jooganayna waa lasoo masaafuriyay, waxana sidoo kale laga mamnuucay inay magaalada Berbera wax uga soo degaan.

Arintaas oo taagan oo suldaanku codsiyadii Ingiriiska ka madax adaygay ayaa waxa Ingiriisku ka warhelay in xaaskii suldaanka oo loogu yeedho Garaada (kasoo jeeda beesha Dhulbahante), ay u socoto xeebaha Karin iyadoo halkaas dhar Cadan uga yimid kala soo degaysa. Markiiba Ingiriisku wuxu amray in lasoo afduubo Garaadada. Waa lagu guulaystay oo waxa lasoo afduubay Garaadadii iyo wiil ay dhashay oo la socday. Markii Berbera la keenay Garaadadu aad bay u xanaaqday ninkii caddaa ee waaliga ahaanna waxay u sheegtay inaanu rag yaqaan ahayn oo halkii uu maalin cad soo weerari lahaa uu habeen usoo dhuuntay, waxayna sheegtay in ninkeedu Berbera soo weerari doono isla markaana gubi doono, Ingiriiskana badda ku dari doono, sidoo kalena waxay sheegtay in ninkeeda iyo saaxiibadii ay isku dhaarsadeen inaanay aqbalin sarraynta ninka cad ee dhulkooda.

“She abused me roundly for having seized her in the dark by stealth, and not in the open field as a fighting man should do. She vowed dire vengeance, saying that her husband would attack and burn Berbera and drive the British into the sea, as he and his friends had determined not to accept the domination of the white man. I apologized, and expressed my sincere regret for the necessity of seizing Her Highness” (p. 256).

Garaadada iyo wiilkeedii amiirka yar waxa Ingiriisku dejiyay guriga martida, ilaalo xooggana waa la dul dhigay. Waaligii wuxu guda galay siduu waraaq ugu qori lahaa Suldaan Nuur Amaan isagoo leh xaaskaagii iyo cunugaagii keli ahaa anaa haya e iska soo celi xoolihii, heshiisna ogolow. Ninkii waaliga ahaa, Langton Walsh, wuxu maalintii dambe isagoo fariintii uusoo qoray sida u yimi Garaadadii isagoo ka codsaday in waraaqda iyo fariinta ay wax ku darayso iyo in kale. Wuxu yiri waxay tiri waxba ku dari maayo. Haddana wuxu yiri waxay iga codsatay inaan waraaqdo u dhiibo. Waxa la yaab iyo fajac igu noqotay inay bilawday inay waraaqdii akhrido. Wuxu yiri iska daa inaan la kulmee weligay hore uma maqal qof dumara oo Soomaali ah oo wax akhrin karta. Markay aragtay in ninka cadi la yaabanyahay aqoonteeda baa waxay u sheegtay wax ka mida taariikh nololeedkeeda: in ay Carabaha ku dhalatay oo ku kortay, in aabeheed oo nin hanti badan lahaa uu u qabtay macalin gaara oo ay wax ka barato, markay waynaatay in loo dhisay Suldaan Nuur, in ninkeedu aanu waxba akhrin waxbana qorin laakiin uu yahay hogaamiye dagaal oo haduu damco Berbera gubi kara iwm.

“Having donned a white uniform, and wearing my medals and sword, I sought and obtained an interview with the Garadah. I showed and read to her my letter to her hus- band, which bore the official seal of my office and my personal signature, and I asked her if she desired to have a letter written at her dictation, to travel with mine to Sultan Nur. She said : “No”, and then, to my intense surprise, after requesting me to hand her again my letter, she began to read it herself. Now I had never before heard of, let alone met, an indigenous Somalin who could read or write. The Garadah perceived my obvious bewilderment and disbelief of her claim to such an educational attainment, and she volunteered the following explanation (…)” (p.257)

Wuxu yiri Garaadadu waxba kumay darin waraaqda laakiin waxay igu tiri farta (calligraphy) aad wax ku qoraysaa waa tii caruurta waxad u baahantahay inaad qabsatid cid ku barta sida farta loo qoro si aad shaqalada si fiican isugu xidhid:

“You write good Arabic, but your calligraphy is that of a child. You need to be taught by a scribe to write neatly, and to form better connections between your syllables.” (p.258)

Maalin kale wuxu waaligii soo booqday Gaaradii wuxuna u sheegay in suldaanku haduu Berbera soo weeraro inuu iyada iyo wiilkeedaba Cadan u gudbinayo. Arintaas Garaadadu aad bay uga xumaatay waxayna ninka cad u sheegtay inuu yahay fuley dumarkuun ka adag.

”My remark caused her to weep and to accuse me of being only fit and capable of making war on a woman” (p.261)

Dhawr cisho markii suldaankii jawaab laga waayay siday filaysanna aan Berbera ninkeedii soo weerarin, Garaadadii way niyadjabtay, waxayna waaligii ku tiri sheeg oo iclaami inaad dagaal igu soo qabsaday oo aan adoon kuu ahay sida diintayada islaamku iyo ta masiixiyadu qabto, aanna aan ka furanahay Sultan Nuur.

Dhawr iyo toban cisho kadib baa suldaankii jawaab laga helay wuxuna ogolaaday heshiis. Wuxu yimi Berbera oo xaaskiisii Ingiriisku ku wareejiyay iyadoo loo qabtay musaabad rasmi ah oo askartu salaan siisay Suldaanka iyo Garaadada.

10 sano ka dib soo ifbixidii dhaqdhaqaaqii gobonidoonka Daraawiishta suldaanku wuxu ka mid noqon doonaa dadkii bud-dhiga u ahaa xarakadaas. Suldaanku, ahu, wuxu ku aasanyahay degmada Taleex.

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